SUNDRIES: An eighteenth century newsletter

N° 41 - July 29, 2006

GOOGLE PRINT: Index to Public Domain works inter text LINKS: One click conversion; American Treasures inter text COMMERCE: The chaos of Old Regime weights inter text BOOKSTORES: Sam Johnson's Bookshop


inter cooking 18th CENTURY RECIPE: Thomas Jefferson's ice cream

fleur de lysFOR READERS OF FRENCHfleur de lys
inter text Magasin Pittoresque: No 44 - 1876


GOOGLE PRINT: Index to Public Domain works

One of the more frustrating things about the current version of Google Print is that it provides no list of works to browse. This list may not be completely up to date, but it should provide a few hours of fun to those who would like to see what is hidden in the depths of this still evolving tool:

The following is a list of public domain texts I've found at Google Books. I've had to change it to only return a maximum of 1000 books at a time because it takes several minutes to deliver the entire list of 44668 books. This list was created to help people at Distributed Proofreaders find PD book images to OCR and convert into plain text and HTML for inclusion at Project Gutenberg, which now has over 18,000 plain text and HTML books available for free download."
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LINKS: One click conversion; American Treasures

This tool not only simplifies conversions, but includes period measurements: "Capacity and Volume Conversion. Convert units with one click of your mouse".

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COMMERCE: The chaos of Old Regime weights

Anyone who has had occasion to convert a French Old Regime weight to a modern or even another period weight unit is probably aware that, in France, weights (and measures) varied from region to region. What may not be clear is just how much they varied:

It is a well-known fact that in France not only are used a quantity of different weights which all bear the name *pound*, but also a multitude of boisseaux, of aunes, of verges, of cannes, of toises, of pints; that these measures differ amongst themselves, although designated by the same name; that these differences are very significant, not from one Province to another, or from one City to another, but in the same City, in the same Burgh, in the same Village.
Tillet & Abeille, Observations de la Société royale d'agriculture sur l'uniformité des poids et mesures, 1790 (106)

Here, for instance, is just one entry (out of many) in a work (from 1699) on weights and measures in Savoy: ANNECY The pound is of 24 ounces, which is a pound & a half of Chambery, as is the weight of La-Roche & of haute Foussigny.
GENEVA The weight is of 18 ounces, equal to 20 ounces of Chambery, & 21 Marc weights, so that 90 Geneva pounds make 120 Chambery pounds. Romilly & Seiffel. Their weight is of 18 ounces, equal to 11 of Chambery. Pont de Beau-Maison. It is also of 18 ounces. Moutiers. The weight of Moutiers, & of Tarantaise. The pound is 18 ounces. Saint Jean de Mourienne & Modane It is also of 16 ounces like that of Chambery. Ayguebelle. It is of 18 ounces, equal to 18 ounces of Chambery. Lannebourg. The weight is of 12 ounces, equal to 14 of St. Jean de Mourinenne. La Rochette. It is of 16 ounces, just like that of Chammbery.
Bonne en Foussigny, Boage & St. Foyre, & Vieux en Sala. The Weight is of 18 ounces. A la Vale d'Aoste. Counting is by Rup, which is composed of 25 pounds, the pound is of 12 ounces as in Piedmont.
Gaspard Bailly, Traité des servis et devoirs seigneuriaux : ensemble les poids et mésures du païs de Savoye, tant blé, vin, qu'autres danrées, avec la valeur des monnoyes, tirées des archives de la Chambre des Comptes et les marques dont se servoient les anciens pour leurs poids et mesures (37-38)

Note that the article after this describes measures of wheat; one element in the confusion of weights was that they varied by what was being measured, among other things.

The so-called Dictionary of Trévoux (1771) presented this situation, along with some actual weight standards, in part of a long article on "Weights" (Poids):

Weights differ by place and by time. They are not only different in foreign countries, but even in each town in France, so that one cannot define them precisely without a reduction by way of Arithmetic. In Lyon, the town weight weighs 14 ounces, & the weight of silk is of 15 ounces. In Rouen the Viscounty weight is different from the marc weight of four pounds in one hundred. One could have a universal weight, using a pendulum, as Mouton, Canon of Lyon, has taught. Several of our Kings have tried to make a general rule, in order to have only one weight & one measure in the kingdom, Charlemagne, Philip the Long, Louis XI, Francois I, Henry II, Charles IX, & Henry III, made several Statutes on this point, which have not been executed at all. - Finally, under the reign of Louis XIV, when working on the merchant Code, this project was prepared again, & the most skillful Merchants, among others, M. Savari.. having been consulted, this last put forth excellent memoirs, which indicate the only way to succeed in this project, & the almost insurmountable difficulties, which could prevent it from ever succeeding.

- The Marc weight, is that used to weigh precious things, or things in small volumes. Seliba Francica, vel bes. These are copper weights subdivided and set in boxes one within the other, which all together, the box included, weigh eight ounces or the marc.
- The Paris pound is of 16 ounces, & is divided into two marcs, the marc into 8 ounces, the ounces into 8 gros, the gros into 3 deniers, the denier into 24 grains. This first division is for dealers in expensive goods. For dealers in goods of lesser value, the pound is divided into half-pounds, the half-pound into 2 quarterons, the half-quarterons into 2 ounces, the ounces into two half-ounces.
- Table Weight. It is a different weight from the marc weight, used in Provence & Languedoc. It is true that the table weight pound is composed of sixteen ounces, like that of the marc weight, but these ounces are not as substantial.
The smallest weight in Medicine is a grain [seed]; by which is meant a well-nourished barley grain, moderately big, & not too dry. Ten of these grains make an obole, or half scrupule. The scrupule is made up of two oboles or 10 grains, the dram of 3 scrupules, or 60 grains; the ounce of 8 drams; & the medicinal pound of 12 ounces, which each have their notes & particular characters in Medecine. The weight in Spain is a very ordinary coin of account. Ten thousand weights are equal to twelve thousand ducats. They call it peso.
Dictionnaire universel françois et latin, vulgairement appelé Dictionnaire de Trévoux(VI, 853)

(Further details on French measurements can be found in the Encyclopedie: T. 12 856-857.) This "almost insurmountable" situation was resolved by the Revolution which finally imposed - as several absolute monarchs could not - standardization of weights and measures across France.

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BOOKSTORES: Sam Johnson's Bookshop

Thursday was a very L.A. day: I was driving up Venice Boulevard towards Sony Studios, to see a friend's new film. That stretch of Venice Boulevard is a perfect sample of the barren L.A. thoroughfare. Imagine my shock then when I saw, stuck among the storefronts, "Sam: Johnson's Bookshop". So out of place did it look that I actually wondered if a plain Sam Johnson - of Culver City or Venice Beach - had innocently opened a bookstore under his own name. But not only is the bookstore itself lined with good hard cover second hand books, a print of Johnson and a front page from the Rambler hang behind the desk (not to mention the nifty little bookmark with the man's portrait at the top). They have not had his original works pass through - one can only expect so much - but the homage is clear. It's at 12310 Venice Boulevard for anyone who might be passing through; no Web page, but the store's email is [log in to unmask] On the next corner up, a sign over a rather ordinary looking luncheonette read - I kid you not - "Pepys Daily Specials".

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Old Regime cases of rape as abduction (rapt) range from forcible rape preceded by an abduction to seduction of a legal minor (that is, under 25) to what appear to be fully consensual, even mutually decided, elopements. While French law did acknowledge a difference between kidnapping by seduction and kidnapping by violence, both were considered forms of rape and could in principle by punished by death (though even with forcible rape, this sentence seemed to be applied unevenly.) Complex considerations of family honor and simple fortune-hunting should also be noted here. A century later, the protagonist of De Maupassant's Bel Ami lures a young woman away with him simply to force her father's approval of the marriage (he is careful not to use his leverage for sexual purposes, since he has a larger goal in view). Similar situations may well have occured in our period, with or without the "victim"'s complicity, as well as the inverse situation where a forcible rape was disguised with a subsequent marriage (despite contrary stipulations in French law). I don't know if, in France, any popular myths existed in regard to forcible abduction such as those mentioned by George Lloyd in England: "Law evaded by putting the woman on horseback *before* the man; by which means, the woman runs away with the man!" (Notes and Queries, 2nd S., XI, January 26, 1861)

One important nuance of this charge was that it made women subject to accusations of rape. Generally, this referred to a seduction or statutory rape. However it could include violence:

A girl or woman who would kidnap by force & by violence a young man, minor, to have relations with him, could also be punished very severely; above all, if it was a public girl, or woman, & the young man was noble, or of a distinguished family. Nonetheless it does not seem that the girl could be punished in this case for abduction by violence, but only by another arbitrary penalty, taking into account the circumstances, & the quality of the persons; because in this type of abduction, all the reasons which make this crime atrocious cease to apply [presumably because physical penetration cannot occur]... Nonetheless if this abduction by violence was committed in order to oblige the minor to contract marriage with the girl who kidnapped him, then it will be punishable by death.
Jousse, "Traite de la Justice Criminelle" (III, 747)

In Abbeville, in the fifteenth century, a woman who had "worked to seduce a young person" was banished after being ridden through the street in a cart and put in the pillory, where all her hair was burnt off. It is not clear however if she was charged with rape. (Francois-Cesar Louandre, Histoire d'Abbeville (II, 267)) We will see at least one more explicit accusation of this sort in the eighteenth century later in the current series. Jousse outlines complex nuances and exceptions to this charge. Readers of French who are interested in the subject are again referred to his long section on the whole continuum of rape and other 'carnal relations': Traite de la Justice Criminelle (Tome 3, 705-752).


This case shows clearly that, legally at least, marriage could not, as in many cultures, remove the stain of a rape by abduction. Note that the initial sentence here, too, was capital (though Denisart does not give the result of the later review).

Kidnapping being a public crime, it is forbidden to the father and mother to satisfy themselves with the marriage of the guilty parties, & to pardon the Ravisher: it is on this basis that in a Decision handed down July 14, 1735, at the Tournelle, the Court did not hear a young man, condemned in absentia, by Sentence of the Judge of Noyon, to be hung as a Ravisher, who asked and offered to marry the kidnapped person, & to recognize a child she had born since her kidnapping. The mother and father of the girl who were Parties in the Judgement, declared that his absence was more of a voluntary retreat than a forced kidnapping on the part of the young man; & though the girl, authorized by her father and mother, agreed to the marriage, after reading the inquiry, the Parties were granted their desisting [?] and their consent; but the Court, without what is more regarding their conclusions, giving preference to those of the King's Men, annulled the appeal; as a result, sent the Accused to the Prisons of the Bailiwick of Noyon, for his sentence to be reviewed until a final judgement.
Denisart, Decisions Nouvelles, T. 3 289

The same case is described, with more detail, in Houard's "Dictionnaire du Coutume de Normandie" ("Rapt", IV, 24). He gives the date of the original abduction as January 13, 1724.


This case from Denisart is a prime example of a death sentence being handed down (albeit in absentia) for a consensual "abduction". Yet the consent was clear enough for the woman to be disinherited for granting it.

Those who commit Rapine are considered guilty who carry away sons or daughters of good family without violence, and that even with their consent. The Decision of the Parliament of Dijon handed down February 10, 1738, condemning the Marquis of Tavannes Mirebel (in absentia) to be beheaded, for having ravished & kidnapped the Demoiselle de Brun, his cousin & with her consent, consecrates this principle, in saying that the condemnation is pronounced against this Marquis 'for having kidnapped Miss de Brun *with the latter's consent, & having then carried her out of the Kingdon, also by her consent..*' The Parliament of Paris even judged by a Decision handed down January 23, 1755, that Miss de Brun deserved to be disinherited as declared in the will of her mother the Marquise de Brun, for having allowed the Marquis de Tavannes her ravisher to kidnap her and take her to German Lorraine, in the County of Nassau. Yet there had not been a marriage, since there had not been a nuptial Blessing; but one Feast day towards the end of the Mass which they had attended, they had advanced towards the Altar, & had declared publicly that they took each other as spouses, the wedding ring had been given & openly accepted; they took the Assembly as witnesses of their union, & after had an act written by a Notary.
Denisart, T. 3 289


This is an example of a case that might have been tried as 'rapt'. Note that the parents did not report the crime until it was clear Riguegueri was unlikely to marry their daughter. Otherwise, the whole case might have stayed unknown to the authorities. It seems possible here that Riguegueri did indeed want to marry the girl (and to force her parents' consent) whether or not he was already married.

In the year 1773, Monday, June 7, at eight in the morning, appeared at our headquarters and before us Nicolas Maillot, etc., Jean Marquis, director of the Chinese Shadow theater where he holds shows on the boulevard du Temple, Thérèse Maynère, his wife, residing on the rue Boucherat, in the Marais, at the house of Potin, wigmaker and lodging keeper, and Marie-Anne-Antoinette Marquis, their daughter, 14 years old, living with them; Who brought a complaint against Antoine Riguegueri, mandolin player, residing on the boulevard du Temple in the house of the lady Baron, their associate, and said that Wednesday, last May 26, in the morning, the said Riguegueri, after having led the said daughter Marquis to understand that he loved her and that he wanted to marry her, and after having made her great promises, persuaded her to go with him in a carriage for hire that he had all ready at the end of the rue Charlot and in which he had her climb to the fourth or fifth floor of a house situated in a street which she did not know, but which seemed to her to be occupied on the ground floor by a shoemaker, after having taken several turns in Paris, apparently to prevent her from knowing where he was taking her. That being with her in this small room, he made her different propositions and promises, among other to marry her and to oblige her father and mother, by her absence from the house, to consent to it, and to give her different jewels [sic]. such as a golden watch and a golden tobacco holder, together with a mandolin. That he did everything possible by his promises as by his caresses, to see her carnally and even, upon her resistance and growing enraged, he said that he would strangle her if she did not consent; that he even forced her to transcribe a letter he had composed by which it appeared that she had prompted him to carry her off from her mother and father's and take her where she wished. That finally, continuing his caresses and his threats, he saw her carnally against her will and kept her in this small room until the next day. That [she] having absolutely wanted to leave this small room and leave, he said that he was leaving and that he indeed left and went to find her father amd mother to whom he admitted what he had done and asked for their daughter in marriage, after having sworn and attested that he was single, because he was said to be married, adding that if they did not consent to it, he would take her out of this small room, would carry her off to the country, where no one would see her. That they, mother and father, to recover their daugher, made him whatever promises he wanted, and, on these promises, he took the mother to a street she did not know, without wanting her to go in to any house, made her wait and finally brought her her daughter whom she took home, along with the said Riguegueri to whom they continued to promise to give their daughter so long as he was not married. But since it is very doubtful that he be single, as he claimed, and that, what is more, it has come back to them that the said Riguegueri is a libertine who even wanted to again seduce and carry off the said girl Marquis, they had been advised to register the current complaint.
Campardon, Spectacles de la Foire (II, 109-110)
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From CHEZ JIM Books:
and a history of the CROISSANT:

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18th CENTURY RECIPE: Thomas Jefferson's ice cream

It is appropriate that one of the earliest American recipes for ice cream comes from Thomas Jefferson, who was one of the those who introduced "iced cream" to the United States. (See also His recipe clearly comes from a French model and refers to a "sabotiere". This is a slight corruption of "sarbotiere", which can approximately be translated as "ice-cream maker", though the latter term is a little anachronistic (see below). The Encyclopedia shows an image of one in the plates for "Confiserie" (Seconde livraison, Seconde partie - Plate II - figure 8 (PDF page 175)) The note for this set of plates includes this explanation:

Sarbotiere. This is a tin or tinplate container; in which are liqueurs to be served are frozen, or iced fruits are made. The sarbotiere has, as shown, its bucket, & this bucket has a hole with a peg to empty it of water. The distance from the sarbotiere to the inside of the bucket is of four fingers.
Encyclopedie, "Confiserie", note to Plate II - figure 8 (PDF page 171)

It is even possible to order, on-line, a reproduction of Jefferson's own model: "*Historic reproduction* Thomas Jefferson brought recipes for "iced cream" home from France. He made them in this "sarbotiere", or ice cream maker! If you have ever made ice cream the "rolling tin can way", you will understand the principle behind this 18th century version!" The Monticello site, which also offers this recipe, as well as a modern interpretation of it, includes another image of a "sabottiere" and a useful note: "*The sabottiere is the inner cannister shown in the drawing. There was no crank to turn it; when Jefferson wrote "turn the Sabottiere in the ice 10 minutes," he meant for someone to grab the handle and turn the cannister clockwise and then counterclockwise."

To a French speaker, the name of this apparatus suggests a sherbet (sorbet) - maker: sorbetiere. But I have not so far seen a recipe for sherbet (under that name) in our period, when 'sorbet' was primarily known as a Turkish drink. The Encyclopedia's description of the original is not flattering: "SHERBET, (Confection & drink of the Turks.) that which the Turks drink normally is only an infusion of raisins, in which they throw a handful of snow; this drink is not worth the herbal infusion at the Hotel-Dieu [public hospital] of Paris." As late as 1798, a play has a Damascus judge saying: "I will come back to see you, and we will reason on justice together, smoking from the same pipe, and drinking sherbert from the same cup." Le cordonnier de damas, Pigault-Lebrun, 1798. On the other hand, most iced preparations of the period were indeed more like sherbert than ice cream, and so, if the association existed in the minds of 18th century users, it was a fair one.

Here is Jefferson's recipe, transcribed from the Library of Congress's version:

2 bottles of good cream 6 yolks of eggs 1/2 lb sugar
mix the yolks and sugar.
put the cream on a fire in a casserole, first putting in a stick of vanilla.
when near boiling tke it off and pour it quickly into the mixture of egs and sugar.
stir it well.
put it on the fire again stirring it thoroughly with a spoon to prevent it sticking to the casserole.
when near boiling take it off and strain it through a towel.
put it in the Sabotiere. then set it on ice an hour before it is to be served.
put into the ice a handful of salt and put ice all around the Sarbotiere - i.e. a layer of ice a layer of salt for three layers.
put salt on the cover lid of the Sabotiere & cover the whole with ice.
leave it still half a quarter of an hour. then turn the Sarbotiere in the ice 10 minutes.
open it to loosen with a spatula the ice from the inner sides of the Sabotiere.
shut it & replace it in the ice.
open it from time to time to detach the ice from the sides.
when well taken (prise) stir it well the Spatula.
put it in moulds, jostling well down on the knee.
then put the mould into the same bucket of ice.
Leave it there to the moment of serving it.
Immerse the moulds in warm water, turning it well till it will come out & turn it into a plate.

A visitor to Jefferson's White House noted a list of items served, including: "Ice cream very good . . .; a dish somewhat like pudding . . . covered with cream sauce -- very fine."

The idea of "ice cream" does not yet appear to have been established in France itself. The modern French word for ice cream - glace - is the same as the word for ice, and in the eighteenth century such preparations were closer to true ices or modern sherbets, and were often called "snows" - neiges (about which more next week). A "snow" could have cream in it, but the idea of iced cream did not yet correspond to a separate category of frozen dessert, and so the following recipe is but one of several "snows", many of which are made without cream:

Ordinary Cream Snow. Take a dozen fresh eggs, and separate the whites from the yolks; strain your yolks through a strainer into a frying pan; blend them with 2 pints [4 English pints] of sweet cream: put in a little lemon peel: cook your cream over a low fire, turning it continually with a spatula until you see that it starts to rise; take it off the fire; add powdered sugar to taste: when it is dissolved, strain your cream in a terrine through a sieve: let it cool & put it in a sarbotiere [ice-cream maker]: to finish it, see "put to ice", "make an ice take" & "work an ice". All snows require the same work: the cream risks turning in the summer...

PUT to ice, is to put liqueur in a sarbotiere, put the sarbotiere in a bucket, & surround it with crushed and salted ice. When your sarbotieres are full of the liqueur you would like to harden, put them in buckets expressly made the same height and width as your sarbotieres, so that there is play around your sarbotieres the width of a hand; you will then fill this space with ice crushed and mixed with salt, up to the cover; then you will begin to work it....

SQUEEZE with ice, Pantry term, to well wrap, & cover with salted and crushed ice all sorts of ice molds, in which one will have put snows, to ice them to the point that one can take the figure out...

WORK, said of snows. It is when one moves the sarbotiere around, & detaches and well mixes the snow in the sarbotiere, to keep ice cubes from forming.
Le Cannameliste, 1768 (154, 141, 219, 234)

Before the sarbotiere, it seems that bottles were put in tinplate boxes and covered with ice. For some idea of how this process evolved, here is an earlier recipe from L'Ecole parfaite des officiers de bouche (1737):

Of how to ice all kinds of delicious Waters.

Take the Bottle where the Waters are, put three or four in a bucket, & more if desired so long as the bucket is big enough putting them a finger's distance from each other, then take ice, crush it up well, and salt it. Once it is crushed, promptly put some in the bucket, & bit by bit tin-plate boxes in which will be your Waters, until it is full, and the boxes are are covered. For one bucket six boxes are needed (these sort of containers are sold at the tin smith's). If one wants them to ice promptly put two litrons [.83 liters each] of salt or thereabouts: that noted, let your Waters rest a half-hour or three-quarter hour time, watching from time to time that the water does not cover the boxes as the ice melts, & that it does not seep into the Liqueurs; & to avoid this mishap, one must make a hole at the bottom of the bucket where you will put in a pit; it is through this that you will remove water from time to time. After this, stack the ice on top of your boxes, stir the Liqueur with a spoon, in order to make it freeze into snow: & if it freezes into large pieces, stir it with a spoon in order to dissolve it, because otherwise your iced Waters also will only have an insipid taste. When you have then stirred all your boxes and your Liqueurs, & you have been careful that no salted ice seeped in, cover them again with their covers: then with ice and crushed salt as above, the more salt you stuff into the ice, the more the Liqueuers will ice, do not take them out of the bucket until you are ready to serve them.
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fleur de lysFOR READERS OF FRENCHfleur de lys

Magasin Pittoresque: No 44 - 1876

REMINDER: The Magasin Pittoresque was a nineteenth century French magazine. Issues can be found on Gallica.Also, most articles are accompanied by at least one image, and so some may interest even those who do not read French.

There are weeks when the Magasin, purely from an Early Modern point of view, is EXHAUSTING - I was tempted to break this one into two separate "deliveries". (A reminder - this material is only PART of what's in the entire magazine.)

When music masters had to carry a cane AND a violin, how could one not imagine combining them? - the Penitents wore long, high hoods and marched in processions; remind you of anybody? - In 1771, knitting schools were founded that were also "rooms of asylum"; for abandoned children? - the future Francois II sits down to eat - What did a giraffe cost in 1876? a llama? A bison? - You don't hear much about the people who built Europe's fountains - Ingres: "Who does not suffer does not believe." - Louis XIV found himself helpless before Breton superstition - A little girl begs... and grows up to be a royal mistress - Once again (in case you missed this in the Intermediare des Chercheurs): when does a century begin? - Just how fancy does a duke's daughter's comb have to be? - Beranger: "Litterature must be a cane, not a crutch" - If you were one of France's greatest poets (and knew it), would you care how far back your title went? - A tall lean lamp, whose flame told time - Did Jackson Pollack know about... spattering? - A double boiler in French is a bain-marie ("Marie-bath"); the Mary in question, it seems, was Moses and Aaron's prophetess sister - Grenades, it turns out, have a long history... among the Arabs - In search of the Ark: 1701 - An "opening virgin"? Why, a statue of course, and in this case very big - A glimpse at the King's expenses; and hints of why there was a Revolution - Want to jam in the Amazon? Get out your leaf-and-bark bassoon - Want an antique shoehorn? From the Germans or the Romans? - "If God wanted to talk to men, he would use the music of Haydn; and if he wanted to listen to music, he would have Boccherini's played" - An abbe's journal lists some 17th c prices - Sailors on a boat called 'the Carcass', stuck in the North Pole, shot a bear's young, then watched her mourn them - Indian thought: "A king is honored only in his country; a scholar is honored everywhere" - Before Zidane, Zidant: A Provencal noble kidnaps an Arab library - Pointed shoes, shoes with lifts, high heels: shoes, shoes, shoes - "In 1634, the first hospital for the incurable" - we would say 'hospice' - "was founded in Paris" - Pruning shears? In the 16th century? (Did they have hedges?) - Ever wonder who invented fake diamonds? - Roger Sterne would have fit neatly in his son's work - Before jazz, improvisers of poetry (already forgotten in the 19th) - Pascal's Pensees may be a classic, but they weren't always a hit - Ever think about when ELEVATORS were invented? - La Fontaine didn't find all music fable-ous - Once upon a time, a gentleman did NOT knock - In the 19th century, artists went mad the most, functionaries the least - Somehow little ruffians look cuter in tricorner hats (and they are, after all, exercising in their antics)

8 - pocket violin in cane
25 - history (and spooky image) of the Penitents
32 - origin of knitting schools/places of refuge 1771
62 - 1800 is which century?
72 - the hospital of Beaune
104 - 17th c. time-keeping lamp
140 - duel between two princes
153 - 17th c -18th c hats
154 - Norman charitable brotherhoods (later part of article)
158 - giant opening Virgin
171 - Expenses of the King's household 1780
176 - German shoehorn 180 - vestibule of a chateau in 1620
191 - North Pole ship and tragic bear story
192 - Mouley Zidant's library and the Chevalier de Razilly
195 - shoes in the Historic Museum of Costume
203 - Ivry hospital for the incurable
263 - the custom of scratching at a door
281 - marriage agreements
285 - An inquiry under Louis XIV
291 - faience in Strasbourg
312 - 18th c table
318 - the new meter (replacing the Convention's, described)
336 - corporation's safe from Strasbourg
348 - 17th c. rolling pin for pastry
369 - gymnastic games in schools
389 - Brest's mayor's ceremony of investiture
404 - altar decorations

9 - painters David Tenier (father and son)
54 - fountain builders the Francines; Ingres' sayings on art
55 - Louis XIV vs Fridays
57 - painter Baur/Bawer - image of Venetians chatting
59 - the Thursday soup - an anecdote of Mme Maintenon
60 - Italian traveler Joseph Acerbi
66 - anecdotes from the life of David Garrick
129 - lawyer Pierre-Jean-Baptiste Gerbier
145 - painters Van de Meer of Delft
155 - Tournefort looks for the ark
180 - Boccherini and the Prince of Asturia
189 - the journal of Abbe Christofle Petit (1618-1858, Rouen)
209 - flower painter Jean-Francoise Van Dael
213 - Swimmer/naturalist Abbe Dicquemare
215 - inventor of false diamonds Georges d'Arc; Sterne's father in a duel
217 - famous improvisers (of poetry) Bernardino Perfetti
223 - Pascal's contemporaries judge his Pensees
234 - Champollion, translator of the Rosetta Stone
241 - La Fontaine's clavichord (and musical tastes)
275 - Marquis de Turbilly, agronomist
299 - Canon Schmid
397 - Louis XIV's vegetable gardener La Quintinye

Off-topic but of interest
46 - menu for Francois II (while still dauphin)
50 - 'recent' prices for rare animals
64 - Charles the Bold's daughter's (ridiculously ornate) comb
71 - Beranger's warning to young poets
78 - Ronsard's family
141 - Spattering, an English painting style
151 - Chinese cases for long nails; double-boilers; Arab grenades
158 - Chinese sayings about women
173 - instruments of the Amazon
182 - rules for describing art in a church
191 - Indian sayings
208 - 16th c. pruning shears
239 - elevators
284 - madness and occupation
318 - foot-binding less popular in China

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End quote

"I used to find some relief by walking alone in the garden after it was dark, and cursing with hearty good will the authors of that terrible system which had so altered the character of the Revolution I had been so proud to defend."

Thomas Paine on the French Revolution, quoted in Henry Yorke's France in 1802

FROM CHEZ JIM BOOKS Three works on eighteenth century subjects:

For some sample 18th century vegetarian recipes, click here.

copyright 2006 Jim Chevallier.
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