SUNDRIES: An eighteenth century newsletter

N° 12 - January 7, 2006

ON-LINE ARTICLES: Public Opinion; Feminization inter text LINKS: American writers, a parson's diary and Canadian costume inter text IMAGE SEARCH: Search by period at RMN inter text LINGUET: Marx again inter text BASTILLE: An American prisoner inter text MONARCHS: Saint Marie-Antoinette?

inter cooking 18th CENTURY RECIPE: Melon marmalade tart


ON-LINE ARTICLES: Public Opinion

Feminization Two articles that may be of interest, though neither is new: Robert Darnton looks at "Public Opinion and Communication Networks in Eighteenth-Century Paris"

After gathering force for decades, public opinion provided the decisive blow when the Old Regime collapsed in 1788. But what exactly was it, and how did it affect events? Although we have several studies of the concept of public opinion as a motif in philosophic thought, we have little information about the way it actually operated.

This review by Michael Caines from the TLS - "Dear Athenians" - looks at The Feminization Debate in Eighteenth-Century England. Literature, commerce and luxury. E. J. Clery. 234pp. Palgrave Macmillan. Paperback, £18.99. (US $27.95). - 0 333 77732 8.

What connects Clarissa, Samuel Richardson's doorstop of a novel, and coffee (apart from needing plenty of the latter to get through the former)? E. J. Clery answers that question with a single, unattractive lump of a word: "feminization" .... Clery begins with coffee, and the warning that feminization, or "the promise of reform through the example of female virtue", was not necessarily a good thing for women. It was a discourse that "failed to address the real problems facing women in every rank of society -inadequate legal rights and the sexual double standard, lack of access to education, paid work and fair wages".
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LINKS: American writers, a parson's diary and Canadian costume

This site provides texts from just a few American writers of our period: American Writers and Their Works - 18th Century

This site presents excerpts from an 18th century parson's diary Parson Woodforde 1759-1803:

James Woodforde (1740-1803) was ordained priest in 1763 and was granted the living of Weston Longville, Norfolk in 1774. For nearly 45 years he kept a diary in which he recorded his everyday happenings and also items of wider news which came to his attention. His work provides a rare insight into life in 18th century England.

This bilingual Canadian site, La Fleur de Lyse is mainly about 18th century clothing in Canada. In addition to some background information, such as: Se vêtir au XVIIIe siècle Dressing the part in 18th century and modern photographs, it offers 18th century clothing patterns ('patrons') for sale.

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IMAGE SEARCH: Search by period at RMN

Search by period at RMN The very useful photographic site of Reunion des Musees Nationaux (United National Museums) has added a search by period to their search page:

Unfortunately, it's a little unforgiving. But generally if you enter the number of the relevant century followed by an 'e' and then 'siecle' ('17e siecle') in the Periode field, and press Enter, you'll get images of works for that century. You can of course add other criteria to narrow it down. It will accept some labels too - 'Moyen Age' (Middle Ages) - but not others ('Renaissance').

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LINGUET: Marx again

I've previously quoted Marx, more non-committally, on a work of Simon Nicolas Henri Linguet's. Now here's a passage that not only more explicitly praises Linguet's work, but manages to fit Proudhon (his main subject), Rousseau and Linguet into a very brief passage: "Proudhon has often been compared to Rousseau. Nothing could be more erroneous. He is more like Nicolas Linguet, whose Théorie des loix civiles, by the way, is a very brilliant book.",+Marx,+On+Proudhon

Interesting that a man who was executed by the French Revolutionaries (and was often said to be a champion of despots) was admired by one who helped inspire the next great revolution.

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BASTILLE: An American prisoner

Were there Americans in the Bastille? At the start of the century, Renneville listed Americans in a general catalogue of nationalities to be found in the Bastille. But he gave no specifics and is generally considered prone to exaggeration. A more certain reference appears in Charpentier's Bastille dévoilée (1789) with this entry from Bastille records: "Entry:11 August 1777 {Hodge, American Englishman] Exit: September 24, 1777" (La Bastille dévoilée: ou Recueil de pièces authentiques pour servir à son histoire - livraison 4 (16) ).

As it turns out, students of American Revolutionary history are more likely to already know about this case than students of France. In 1777, the French, still theoretically neutral, had already warned the American commissioners against sending out privateers from French ports when the Irish Captain Conygham, outfitted by Hodge, sailed from Dunkirk on July 16 of that year and captured some ships (presumably English), to the fury of the English and official displeasure of the French (though the fact that he had a largely French crew made some suspect Sartines' involvement.) Vergennes had Hodge, the outfitter of the ship, arrested. But in fact, according to Stacy Shiff, William Hodge may basically have been a fall guy for Benjamin Franklin and the other American commissioners: "Franklin and his colleagues had failed to grasp a fundamental tenet: One did not lie to the king of France." (Stacey Schiff, Great Improvisation: Franklin,France, and the Birth of America (96))

Hodge's arrest - complicated by his difficulty in understanding the French arresting officers' officialese - seems to have been a pro-forma sop to the English and he was soon released, though not without discussion. Charpentier's account of these events - written as the French began their own revolution - ends with these words:

When Mister Hodge, having left the Bastille, returned to his companions, and told them the story of the injustices committed against him by the French, the Americans could not have imagined that these same French would one day come to generously fight with them, for a liberty to which they attached so small a price. They could not have foreseen then that the spectacle of this same liberty would subsequently serve as a spur to these same Frenchmen, to recover rights which can sometimes be forgotten, but which are never lost.
(More about the intrigues around this case can be found in James Breck Perkins, France in the American Revolution (162)and John Bach McMaster, Benjamin Franklin as a Man of Letters (280).)
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MONARCHS: Saint Marie-Antoinette?

Did cake almost get its own patron saint? "It is known that there was, at a certain time, such serious question of canonizing Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette that a yearly service was prepared to introduce into the Breviary and the Missal." In 1885, a single copy of this "curious volume" existed in the parish of St. Louis en L'Ile.
(Intermediare de Chercheurs, 1885 (750))

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From CHEZ JIM Books:
and a history of the CROISSANT:

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18th CENTURY RECIPE: Melon Marmelade Tart

This recipe, from the Perfect School for Officiers de la Bouche [very roughly, personal chefs of great houses] (L'Ecole parfaite des officiers de bouche, 1738), is for a "tourte", which is often translated as pie, but here plainly seems to be a tart. Macaroons are used here once again as a cooking ingredient. Since the French kind are made with almonds, American cooks, at least, may want to try almond cookies.

Boil melon flesh with a glass of white wine; when the water has boiled away, grate candied lemon peel in a mortar with two macaroons, a little sugar, cinnamon, make your tart in fine dough without covering it; put sugar on it, orange flower when serving it, or glaze it.
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End quote

"A decent man, whose only fault was in being king."

Frederick the Great on Louis XV

FROM CHEZ JIM BOOKS Three works on eighteenth century subjects:

For some sample 18th century vegetarian recipes, click here.

copyright 2006 Jim Chevallier.
When using brief extracts from this site, please credit properly and provide a link back to this site.
(NOTE: Most translations, except where otherwise noted, are by Jim Chevallier and are copyrighted as such.)
Please do not reproduce extended pieces (recipes, translated pieces, etc.) without prior permission.


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